Salts with Acidic Ions (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)
Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations and anions, either of which may be capable of undergoing an acid or base ionization reaction with water. Aqueous salt solutions, therefore, may be acidic, basic, or neutral, depending on the relative acid-base strengths of the salt’s constituent ions. For example, dissolving ammonium chloride in water results in its dissociation, as described by the equation
The ammonium ion is the conjugate acid of the base ammonia, NH3; its acid ionization (or acid hydrolysis) reaction is represented by
Since ammonia is a weak base, Kb is measurable and Ka > 0 (ammonium ion is a weak acid).
The chloride ion is the conjugate base of hydrochloric acid, and so its base ionization (or base hydrolysis) reaction is represented by
Since HCl is a strong acid, Ka is immeasurably large and Kb ≈ 0 (chloride ions don’t undergo appreciable hydrolysis).
Thus, dissolving ammonium chloride in water yields a solution of weak acid cations (NH4+) and inert anions (Cl−), resulting in an acidic solution.
Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e
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