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11 year old boy with ascites and portal hypertension due to schistosomiasis (Agusan del Sur, Philippines, 2005) By Schistosomiasis in a child (Philippines) –, CC BY 2.0,

OpenStax Microbiology

Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is an NTD caused by blood flukes in the genus  Schistosoma that are native to the Caribbean, South America, Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Most human schistosomiasis cases are caused by Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, or S. japonicumSchistosoma are the only trematodes that invade through the skin; all other trematodes infect by ingestion. WHO estimates that at least 258 million people required preventive treatment for schistosomiasis in 2014.

Infected human hosts shed Schistosoma eggs in urine and feces, which can contaminate freshwater habitats of snails that serve as intermediate hosts. The eggs hatch in the water, releasing miracidia, an intermediate growth stage of the Schistosoma that infect the snails. The miracidia mature and multiply inside the snails, transforming into cercariae that leave the snail and enter the water, where they can penetrate the skin of swimmers and bathers. The cercariae migrate through human tissue and enter the bloodstream, where they mature into adult male and female worms that mate and release fertilized eggs. The eggs travel through the bloodstream and penetrate various body sites, including the bladder or intestine, from which they are excreted in urine or stool to start the life cycle over again.

A few days after infection, patients may develop a rash or itchy skin associated with the site of cercariae penetration. Within 1–2 months of infection, symptoms may develop, including fever, chills, cough, and myalgia, as eggs that are not excreted circulate through the body. After years of infection, the eggs become lodged in tissues and trigger inflammation and scarring that can damage the liver, central nervous system, intestine, spleen, lungs, and bladder. This may cause abdominal pain, enlargement of the liver, blood in the urine or stool, and problems passing urine. Increased risk for bladder cancer is also associated with chronic Schistosoma infection. In addition, children who are repeatedly infected can develop malnutrition, anemia, and learning difficulties.

Diagnosis of schistosomiasis is made by the microscopic observation of eggs in feces or urine, intestine or bladder tissue specimens, or serologic tests. The drug praziquantel is effective for the treatment of all schistosome infections. Improving wastewater management and educating at-risk populations to limit exposure to contaminated water can help control the spread of the disease.


Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: