What is Sleep Apnea?


Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder defined by episodes during which breathing stops during sleep.


Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at https://openstax.org/details/books/psychology-2e


Research Article: Obstructive Sleep Apnea Alters Sleep Stage Transition Dynamics

Date Published: June 28, 2010 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Matt T. Bianchi, Sydney S. Cash, Joseph Mietus, Chung-Kang Peng, Robert Thomas, Pedro Antonio Valdes-Sosa. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0011356 Abstract: Enhanced characterization of sleep architecture, compared with routine polysomnographic metrics such as stage percentages and sleep efficiency, may improve the predictive phenotyping of fragmented sleep. One approach involves … Continue reading

Research Article: Lack of Effect of Sleep Apnea on Oxidative Stress in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) Patients

Date Published: June 25, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): M. Simiakakis, F. Kapsimalis, E. Chaligiannis, S. Loukides, N. Sitaras, M. Alchanatis, James West. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039172 Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate markers of systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in subjects with and without OSAS in order to investigate the most important … Continue reading

Research Article: Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Cluster Analysis at Time of Diagnosis

Date Published: June 17, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sébastien Bailly, Marie Destors, Yves Grillet, Philippe Richard, Bruno Stach, Isabelle Vivodtzev, Jean-Francois Timsit, Patrick Lévy, Renaud Tamisier, Jean-Louis Pépin, Friedemann Paul. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157318 Abstract: The classification of obstructive sleep apnea is on the basis of sleep study criteria that may not adequately capture disease … Continue reading

Research Article: The validity of two commercially-available sleep trackers and actigraphy for assessment of sleep parameters in obstructive sleep apnea patients

Date Published: January 9, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Alexia Gruwez, Anne-Violette Bruyneel, Marie Bruyneel, Andrea Romigi. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210569 Abstract: The use of activity and sleep trackers that operate through dedicated smartphone applications has become popular in the general population. However, the validity of the data they provide has been disappointing and only Total … Continue reading

Research Article: Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Quantification by Cardiovascular Data Analysis

Date Published: September 15, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sabrina Camargo, Maik Riedl, Celia Anteneodo, Jürgen Kurths, Thomas Penzel, Niels Wessel, Mathias Baumert. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107581 Abstract: Sleep disorders are a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Sleep apnea is the most common sleep disturbance and its detection relies on a polysomnography, i.e., a combination … Continue reading

Research Article: Impairment of vascular strain in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

Date Published: February 28, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Max Jonathan Stumpf, Christian Alexander Schaefer, Jan Krycki, Robert Schueler, Carmen Pizarro, Georg Nickenig, Martin Steinmetz, Dirk Skowasch, Izabela Tuleta, Yu Ru Kou. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193397 Abstract: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Aim of this present … Continue reading

Research Article: Neural and Neurobehavioral Dysfunction in Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Date Published: August 22, 2006 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Dean W Beebe Abstract: Beebe discusses a new study that found that children with obstructive sleep apnea scored significantly lower than controls on tests of overall intelligence and executive function. Partial Text: Research has confirmed what many parents have long suspected: inadequate sleep in … Continue reading

Research Article: Cardiovascular and Psychiatric Morbidity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) with Insomnia (Sleep Apnea Plus) versus Obstructive Sleep Apnea without Insomnia: A Case-Control Study from a Nationally Representative US Sample

Date Published: March 5, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Madhulika A. Gupta, Katie Knapp, Sudhiranjan Gupta. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090021 Abstract: To evaluate cardiovascular and psychiatric morbidity in patient visits with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with insomnia (OSA+Insomnia) versus OSA without insomnia (OSA-Insomnia) in a nationally representative US sample. A retrospective case-control study of epidemiologic databases … Continue reading

Research Article: The Consolidation of Implicit Sequence Memory in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Date Published: October 15, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Eszter Csabi, Maria Varszegi-Schulz, Karolina Janacsek, Nick Malecek, Dezso Nemeth, Johan J. Bolhuis. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109010 Abstract: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Syndrome is a relatively frequent sleep disorder characterized by disrupted sleep patterns. It is a well-established fact that sleep has beneficial effect on memory consolidation … Continue reading

Research Article: Obstructive sleep apnea may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease

Date Published: September 5, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Sylwia Przybylska-Kuć, Maciej Zakrzewski, Andrzej Dybała, Paweł Kiciński, Grzegorz Dzida, Wojciech Myśliński, Andrzej Prystupa, Barbara Mosiewicz-Madejska, Jerzy Mosiewicz, Andrea Romigi. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221255 Abstract: Amyloid-β 1–40 (Aβ 1–40) and amyloid-β 1–42 (Aβ 1–42) are the proteins known to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease … Continue reading