Statue of Liberty: Changing Colors


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This figure contains two photos of the Statue of Liberty. Photo a appears to be an antique photo which shows the original brown color of the copper covered statue. Photo b shows the blue-green appearance of the statue today. In both photos, the statue is shown atop a building, with a body of water in the background.
Figure 1. (a) The Statue of Liberty is covered with copper skin, and was originally brown, as shown in this painting. (b) Exposure to the elements has resulted in the formation of the blue-green patina seen today. Source: OpenStax Chemistry 2e

Statue of Liberty: Changing Colors (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)

The Statue of Liberty is a landmark every American recognizes. The Statue of Liberty is easily identified by its height, stance, and unique blue-green color (Figure 1). When this statue was first delivered from France, its appearance was not green. It was brown, the color of its copper “skin.” So how did the Statue of Liberty change colors? The change in appearance was a direct result of corrosion. The copper that is the primary component of the statue slowly underwent oxidation from the air. The oxidation-reduction reactions of copper metal in the environment occur in several steps. Copper metal is oxidized to copper(I) oxide (Cu2O), which is red and then to copper(II) oxide, which is black

Coal, which was often high in sulfur, was burned extensively in the early part of the last century. As a result, atmospheric sulfur trioxide, carbon dioxide, and water all reacted with the CuO

These three compounds are responsible for the characteristic blue-green patina seen on the Statue of Liberty (and other outdoor copper structures). Fortunately, the formation of the patina creates a protective layer on the copper surface, preventing further corrosion of the underlying copper. The formation of the protective layer is called passivation.


Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at:


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