stimulant | definition

  • drug that tends to increase overall levels of neural activity
  • includes caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, and cocaine

Source:

Spielman, R. M., Jenkins, W. J., & Lovett, M. D. (2020). Psychology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at https://openstax.org/details/books/psychology-2e

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Research Article: Hand Function is Altered in Individuals with a History of Illicit Stimulant Use

Date Published: December 29, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Verity Pearson-Dennett, Stanley C. Flavel, Robert A. Wilcox, Dominic Thewlis, Adam P. Vogel, Jason M. White, Gabrielle Todd, Kenji Hashimoto. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115771 Abstract: Use of illicit stimulant drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy are a significant worldwide problem. However, little is known about the … Continue reading

Research Article: Illicit Stimulant Use Is Associated with Abnormal Substantia Nigra Morphology in Humans

Date Published: February 13, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Gabrielle Todd, Carolyn Noyes, Stanley C. Flavel, Chris B. Della Vedova, Peter Spyropoulos, Barry Chatterton, Daniela Berg, Jason M. White, Pratibha V. Nerurkar. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056438 Abstract: Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity … Continue reading

Research Article: Illicit Stimulant Use in Humans Is Associated with a Long-Term Increase in Tremor

Date Published: December 18, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Stanley C. Flavel, Jenna D. Koch, Jason M. White, Gabrielle Todd, Robert Chen. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052025 Abstract: Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is a significant health problem. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that 14–57 million people use stimulants … Continue reading

Research Article: Attenuated Neural Processing of Risk in Young Adults at Risk for Stimulant Dependence

Date Published: June 15, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Martina Reske, Jennifer L. Stewart, Taru M. Flagan, Martin P. Paulus. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127010 Abstract: Approximately 10% of young adults report non-medical use of stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate), which puts them at risk for the development of dependence. This fMRI study investigates whether subjects at early … Continue reading

Research Article: What Users Think about the Differences between Caffeine and Illicit/Prescription Stimulants for Cognitive Enhancement

Date Published: June 29, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Andreas G. Franke, Klaus Lieb, Elisabeth Hildt, Michael Taffe. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040047 Abstract: Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (CE) is a topic of increasing public awareness. In the scientific literature on student use of CE as a study aid for academic performance enhancement, there are high prevalence rates regarding … Continue reading

Research Article: Long-Term Stimulant Treatment Affects Brain Dopamine Transporter Level in Patients with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

Date Published: May 15, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Gene-Jack Wang, Nora D. Volkow, Timothy Wigal, Scott H. Kollins, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, Frank Telang, Jean Logan, Millard Jayne, Christopher T. Wong, Hao Han, Joanna S. Fowler, Wei Zhu, James M. Swanson, Thomas Boraud. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063023 Abstract: Brain dopamine dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could … Continue reading

Research Article: Stimulant and Atypical Antipsychotic Medications For Children Placed in Foster Homes

Date Published: January 9, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): L. Oriana Linares, Nuria Martinez-Martin, F. Xavier Castellanos, James G. Scott. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054152 Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the use of prescribed psychoactive medications in a prospective cohort of children shortly after they entered foster homes; and to identify demographics, maltreatment history, … Continue reading

Research Article: Trends in use of prescription stimulants in the United States and Territories, 2006 to 2016

Date Published: November 28, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Brian J. Piper, Christy L. Ogden, Olapeju M. Simoyan, Daniel Y. Chung, James F. Caggiano, Stephanie D. Nichols, Kenneth L. McCall, Kenji Hashimoto. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206100 Abstract: Stimulants are considered the first-line treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the US and they are used … Continue reading

Research Article: The Atypical Stimulant and Nootropic Modafinil Interacts with the Dopamine Transporter in a Different Manner than Classical Cocaine-Like Inhibitors

Date Published: October 17, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Kyle C. Schmitt, Maarten E. A. Reith, Kenji Hashimoto. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025790 Abstract: Modafinil is a mild psychostimulant with pro-cognitive and antidepressant effects. Unlike many conventional stimulants, modafinil has little appreciable potential for abuse, making it a promising therapeutic agent for cocaine addiction. The chief molecular target … Continue reading

Research Article: Differential Activity of Striga hermonthica Seed Germination Stimulants and Gigaspora rosea Hyphal Branching Factors in Rice and Their Contribution to Underground Communication

Date Published: August 15, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Catarina Cardoso, Tatsiana Charnikhova, Muhammad Jamil, Pierre-Marc Delaux, Francel Verstappen, Maryam Amini, Dominique Lauressergues, Carolien Ruyter-Spira, Harro Bouwmeester, Maarja Öpik. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104201 Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) trigger germination of parasitic plant seeds and hyphal branching of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. There is extensive structural variation … Continue reading

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