Highlights: Scientists Create Artificial Red Blood Cell

Photo Credit: https://pixabay.com/users/vector8diy-12462983/ A group of researchers from University of Mexico, South China University of Technology, and Sandia National Laboratories created an artificial red blood cells that imitates all the abilities of the natural cell.The newly created artificial red blood cells has also been found to have new abilities.Red blood cells take up oxygen in … Continue reading Highlights: Scientists Create Artificial Red Blood Cell

Molecular Regulation of Enzymes

Competitive and noncompetitive inhibition affect the reaction's rate differently. Competitive inhibitors affect the initial rate but do not affect the maximal rate; whereas, noncompetitive inhibitors affect the maximal rate.Source: OpenStax Biology 2e OpenStax Biology 2e Enzymes can be regulated in ways that either promote or reduce their activity. There are many different kinds of molecules … Continue reading Molecular Regulation of Enzymes

Highlights: Three Species of Bird Discovered in Peru

New Scytalopus species from the Peruvian Andes: (upper left) adult male and female of the Jalca tapaculo (Scytalopus frankeae); (upper right) male Jalca tapaculo from Junin; (lower left) adult males of the Ampay tapaculo (Scytalopus whitneyi), left from Apurimac, right from Ayacucho; (lower right) adult male (top) and female (below) of the white-winged tapaculo (Scytalopus … Continue reading Highlights: Three Species of Bird Discovered in Peru

Activation Energy

Activation energy is the energy required for a reaction to proceed, and it is lower if the reaction is catalyzed. This diagram's horizontal axis describes the sequence of events in time.Source: OpenStax Biology 2e OpenStax Biology 2e The exergonic reactions require a small amount of energy input before they can proceed with their energy-releasing steps. … Continue reading Activation Energy

Anabolic and Catabolic Pathways

Anabolic pathways are those that require energy to synthesize larger molecules. Catabolic pathways are those that generate energy by breaking down larger molecules. Both types of pathways are required for maintaining the cell’s energy balance.Source: OpenStax Biology 2e OpenStax Biology 2e Anabolic pathways require an input of energy to synthesize complex molecules from simpler ones. Synthesizing … Continue reading Anabolic and Catabolic Pathways


By United States National Institutes for Health, Center for Hearing and Communication Disorders - http://www.ushersyndrome.nih.gov/join/counseling.html, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6610979 OpenStax Biology 2e Many diseases arise from genetic mutations that prevent synthesizing critical proteins. One such disease is Lowe disease (or oculocerebrorenal syndrome, because it affects the eyes, brain, and kidneys). In Lowe disease, there is a … Continue reading Geneticist


By Kytianas - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=79308137 OpenStax Biology 2e Both mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA and ribosomes. Have you wondered why? Strong evidence points to endosymbiosis as the explanation. Symbiosis is a relationship in which organisms from two separate species depend on each other for their survival. Endosymbiosis (endo- = “within”) is … Continue reading Endosymbiosis

Animal Cells versus Plant Cells

The centrosome consists of two centrioles that lie at right angles to each other. Each centriole is a cylinder comprised of nine triplets of microtubules. Nontubulin proteins (indicated by the green lines) hold the microtubule triplets together.Source: OpenStax Biology 2e OpenStax Biology 2e Each eukaryotic cell has a plasma membrane, cytoplasm, a nucleus, ribosomes, mitochondria, … Continue reading Animal Cells versus Plant Cells

The Nucleus

The nucleus stores chromatin (DNA plus proteins) in a gel-like substance called the nucleoplasm. The nucleolus is a condensed chromatin region where ribosome synthesis occurs. We call the nucleus' boundary the nuclear envelope. It consists of two phospholipid bilayers: an outer and an inner membrane. The nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum. Nuclear … Continue reading The Nucleus