Plant cells and algal cells contain chloroplasts, the organelles in which photosynthesis occurs. All chloroplasts have at least three membrane systems: the outer membrane, the inner membrane, and the thylakoid membrane system. Inside the outer and inner membranes is the chloroplast stroma, a gel-like fluid that makes up much of a chloroplast’s volume, and in which the thylakoid system floats. The thylakoid system is a highly dynamic collection of folded membrane sacs. It is where the green photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll is found and the light reactions of photosynthesis occur. In most plant chloroplasts, the thylakoids are arranged in stacks called grana (singular: granum), whereas in some algal chloroplasts, the thylakoids are free floating.
Other organelles similar to mitochondria have arisen in other types of eukaryotes, but their roles differ. Hydrogenosomes are found in some anaerobic eukaryotes and serve as the location of anaerobic hydrogen production. Hydrogenosomes typically lack their own DNA and ribosomes. Kinetoplasts are a variation of the mitochondria found in some eukaryotic pathogens. In these organisms, each cell has a single, long, branched mitochondrion in which kinetoplast DNA, organized as multiple circular pieces of DNA, is found concentrated at one pole of the cell.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology