Some disease caused by hypersensitivities are not caused exclusively by one type. For example, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), which is often an occupational or environmental disease, occurs when the lungs become inflamed due to an allergic reaction to inhaled dust, endospores, bird feathers, bird droppings, molds, or chemicals. HP goes by many different names associated with various forms of exposure. HP associated with bird droppings is sometimes called pigeon fancier’s lung or poultry worker’s lung—both common in bird breeders and handlers. Cheese handler’s disease, farmer’s lung, sauna takers’ disease, and hot-tub lung are other names for HP associated with exposure to molds in various environments.
Pathology associated with HP can be due to both type III (mediated by immune complexes) and type IV (mediated by TH1 cells and macrophages) hypersensitivities. Repeated exposure to allergens can cause alveolitis due to the formation of immune complexes in the alveolar wall of the lung accompanied by fluid accumulation, and the formation of granulomas and other lesions in the lung as a result of TH1-mediated macrophage activation. Alveolitis with fluid and granuloma formation results in poor oxygen perfusion in the alveoli, which, in turn, can cause symptoms such as coughing, dyspnea, chills, fever, sweating, myalgias, headache, and nausea. Symptoms may occur as quickly as 2 hours after exposure and can persist for weeks if left untreated.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology