Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are structural RNA molecules and, depending on the species, many different types of tRNAs exist in the cytoplasm. Bacterial species typically have between 60 and 90 types. Serving as adaptors, each tRNA type binds to a specific codon on the mRNA template and adds the corresponding amino acid to the polypeptide chain. Therefore, tRNAs are the molecules that actually “translate” the language of RNA into the language of proteins. As the adaptor molecules of translation, it is surprising that tRNAs can fit so much specificity into such a small package. The tRNA molecule interacts with three factors: aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, and mRNA.
Mature tRNAs take on a three-dimensional structure when complementary bases exposed in the single-stranded RNA molecule hydrogen bond with each other. This shape positions the amino-acid binding site, called the CCA amino acid binding end, which is a cytosine-cytosine-adenine sequence at the 3’ end of the tRNA, and the anticodon at the other end. The anticodon is a three-nucleotide sequence that bonds with an mRNA codon through
complementary base pairing.
An amino acid is added to the end of a tRNA molecule through the process of tRNA “charging,” during which each tRNA molecule is linked to its correct or cognate amino acid by a group of enzymes called aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. At least one type of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase exists for each of the 20 amino acids. During this process, the amino acid is first activated by the addition of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and then transferred to the tRNA, making it a charged tRNA, and AMP is released.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology