While the original fluorescent and confocal microscopes allowed better visualization of unique features in specimens, there were still problems that prevented optimum visualization. The effective sensitivity of fluorescence microscopy when viewing thick specimens was generally limited by out-of-focus flare, which resulted in poor resolution. This limitation was greatly reduced in the confocal microscope through the use of a confocal pinhole to reject out-of-focus background fluorescence with thin (<1 μm), unblurred optical sections. However, even the confocal microscopes lacked the resolution needed for viewing thick tissue samples. These problems were resolved with the development of the two-photon microscope, which uses a scanning technique, fluorochromes, and long-wavelength light (such as infrared) to visualize specimens. The low energy associated with the long-wavelength light means that two photons must strike a location at the same time to excite the fluorochrome. The low energy of the excitation light is less damaging to cells, and the long wavelength of the excitation light more easily penetrates deep into thick specimens. This makes the two-photon microscope useful for examining living cells within intact tissues—brain slices, embryos, whole organs, and even entire animals.
Currently, use of two-photon microscopes is limited to advanced clinical and research laboratories because of the high costs of the instruments. A single two-photon microscope typically costs between $300,000 and $500,000, and the lasers used to excite the dyes used on specimens are also very expensive. However, as technology improves, twophoton microscopes may become more readily available in clinical settings.
Parker, N., Schneegurt, M., Thi Tu, A.-H., Forster, B. M., & Lister, P. (n.d.). Microbiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/microbiology