Titration Analysis


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Titration. Two pictures are shown. In a, a person is shown pouring a liquid from a small beaker into a buret. The person is wearing goggles and gloves as she transfers the solution into the buret. In b, a close up view of the markings on the side of the buret is shown. The markings for 10, 15, and 20 are clearly shown with horizontal rings printed on the buret. Between each of these whole number markings, half markings are also clearly shown with horizontal line segment markings.
(a) A student fills a buret in preparation for a titration analysis. (b) A typical buret permits volume measurements to the nearest 0.01 mL. (credit a: modification of work by Mark Blaser and Matt Evans; credit b: modification of work by Mark Blaser and Matt Evans)

Titration (OpenStax Chemistry 2e)

The described approach to measuring vinegar strength was an early version of the analytical technique known as titration analysis. A typical titration analysis involves the use of a buret to make incremental additions of a solution containing a known concentration of some substance (the titrant) to a sample solution containing the substance whose concentration is to be measured (the analyte). The titrant and analyte undergo a chemical reaction of known stoichiometry, and so measuring the volume of titrant solution required for complete reaction with the analyte (the equivalence point of the titration) allows calculation of the analyte concentration. The equivalence point of a titration may be detected visually if a distinct change in the appearance of the sample solution accompanies the completion of the reaction. The halt of bubble formation in the classic vinegar analysis is one such example, though, more commonly, special dyes called indicators are added to the sample solutions to impart a change in color at or very near the equivalence point of the titration. Equivalence points may also be detected by measuring some solution property that changes in a predictable way during the course of the titration. Regardless of the approach taken to detect a titration’s equivalence point, the volume of titrant actually measured is called the end point. Properly designed titration methods typically ensure that the difference between the equivalence and end points is negligible. Precipitation, acid-base and redox are the most common type of chemical reaction may serve as the basis for a titration analysis.

Related Research: Research Article: A model for oxygen conservation associated with titration during pediatric oxygen therapy


Flowers, P., Theopold, K., Langley, R., & Robinson, W. R. (2019, February 14). Chemistry 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/books/chemistry-2e


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Linear Titration Curves of Acids and Bases