OpenStax Biology 2e
Synovial joints are further classified into six different categories on the basis of the shape and structure of the joint. The shape of the joint affects the type of movement permitted by the joint. These joints can be described as planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, or ball-and-socket joints.
Planar joints have bones with articulating surfaces that are flat or slightly curved faces. These joints allow for gliding movements, and so the joints are sometimes referred to as gliding joints. The range of motion is limited in these joints and does not involve rotation. Planar joints are found in the carpal bones in the hand and the tarsal bones of the foot, as well as between vertebrae.
In hinge joints, the slightly rounded end of one bone fits into the slightly hollow end of the other bone. In this way, one bone moves while the other remains stationary, like the hinge of a door. The elbow is an example of a hinge joint. The knee is sometimes classified as a modified hinge joint.
Pivot joints consist of the rounded end of one bone fitting into a ring formed by the other bone. This structure allows rotational movement, as the rounded bone moves around its own axis. An example of a pivot joint is the joint of the first and second vertebrae of the neck that allows the head to move back and forth. The joint of the wrist that allows the palm of the hand to be turned up and down is also a pivot joint.
Condyloid joints consist of an oval-shaped end of one bone fitting into a similarly oval-shaped hollow of another bone. This is also sometimes called an ellipsoidal joint. This type of joint allows angular movement along two axes, as seen in the joints of the wrist and fingers, which can move both side to side and up and down.
Saddle joints are so named because the ends of each bone resemble a saddle, with concave and convex portions that fit together. Saddle joints allow angular movements similar to condyloid joints but with a greater range of motion. An example of a saddle joint is the thumb joint, which can move back and forth and up and down, but more freely than the wrist or fingers.
Ball-and-socket joints possess a rounded, ball-like end of one bone fitting into a cuplike socket of another bone. This organization allows the greatest range of motion, as all movement types are possible in all directions. Examples of ball-and-socket joints are the shoulder and hip joints.
Clark, M., Douglas, M., Choi, J. Biology 2e. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/biology-2e
Research Article: Diagnostic accuracy of synovial chondromatosis of the temporomandibular joint on magnetic resonance imaging
Date Published: January 3, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Xiaohan Liu, Shaonan Wan, Pei Shen, Yating Qiu, Manoj Kumar Sah, Ahmed Abdelrehem, Minjie Chen, Shanyong Zhang, Chi Yang, Jong-Ki Huh. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209739 Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for synovial chondromatosis (SC) of … Continue reading
Research Article: Interleukin-6 in Serum and in Synovial Fluid Enhances the Differentiation between Periprosthetic Joint Infection and Aseptic Loosening
Date Published: February 21, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Thomas M. Randau, Max J. Friedrich, Matthias D. Wimmer, Ben Reichert, Dominik Kuberra, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Andreas Limmer, Dieter C. Wirtz, Sascha Gravius, Herman Tse. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089045 Abstract: The preoperative differentiation between septic and aseptic loosening after total hip or knee arthroplasty is essential for successful … Continue reading
Research Article: Equine or porcine synovial fluid as a novel ex vivo model for the study of bacterial free-floating biofilms that form in human joint infections
Date Published: August 15, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jessica M. Gilbertie, Lauren V. Schnabel, Noreen J. Hickok, Megan E. Jacob, Brian P. Conlon, Irving M. Shapiro, Javad Parvizi, Thomas P. Schaer, Amal Al-Bakri. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221012 Abstract: Bacterial invasion of synovial joints, as in infectious or septic arthritis, can be difficult to treat in … Continue reading
Research Article: Serum IL-6 in combination with synovial IL-6/CRP shows excellent diagnostic power to detect hip and knee prosthetic joint infection
Date Published: June 21, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Jiri Gallo, Michal Svoboda, Jana Zapletalova, Jitka Proskova, Jarmila Juranova, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199226 Abstract: The diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is still a challenge in some patients after total joint replacement. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) strongly participates in the arrangement of the host-bacteria response. Therefore, … Continue reading
Research Article: Synovium Fragment-Derived Cells Exhibit Characteristics Similar to Those of Dissociated Multipotent Cells in Synovial Fluid of the Temporomandibular Joint
Date Published: July 8, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Yang-peng Sun, You-hua Zheng, Wen-jing Liu, Yu-liang Zheng, Zhi-guang Zhang, Songtao Shi. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0101896 Abstract: Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) found in the synovial fluid (SFMSCs) of the tempromandibular joint (TMJ) remain poorly understood. During TMJ arthrocentesis, we discovered that synovial fluid collected from some … Continue reading
Research Article: Osteopontin Level in Synovial Fluid Is Associated with the Severity of Joint Pain and Cartilage Degradation after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture
Date Published: November 15, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Mika Yamaga, Kunikazu Tsuji, Kazumasa Miyatake, Jun Yamada, Kahaer Abula, Young-Jin Ju, Ichiro Sekiya, Takeshi Muneta, Joel Joseph Gagnier. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049014 Abstract: To explore the molecular function of Osteopontin (OPN) in the pathogenesis of human OA, we compared the expression levels of OPN in synovial fluid … Continue reading
Research Article: Synovial Fluid Progenitors Expressing CD90+ from Normal but Not Osteoarthritic Joints Undergo Chondrogenic Differentiation without Micro-Mass Culture
Date Published: August 29, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Roman J. Krawetz, Yiru Elizabeth Wu, Liam Martin, Jerome B. Rattner, John R. Matyas, David A. Hart, Irina Kerkis. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043616 Abstract: Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes, and are in part responsible for maintaining tissue integrity. Recently, a progenitor cell … Continue reading
Research Article: TNFα promotes proliferation of human synovial MSCs while maintaining chondrogenic potential
Date Published: May 18, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Mikio Shioda, Takeshi Muneta, Kunikazu Tsuji, Mitsuru Mizuno, Keiichiro Komori, Hideyuki Koga, Ichiro Sekiya, Wan-Ju Li. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177771 Abstract: Synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a candidate cell source for cartilage and meniscus regeneration. If we can proliferate synovial MSCs more effectively, we can expand … Continue reading
Research Article: Cytoskeletal Rearrangements in Synovial Fibroblasts as a Novel Pathophysiological Determinant of Modeled Rheumatoid Arthritis
Date Published: October 28, 2005 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Vassilis Aidinis, Piero Carninci, Maria Armaka, Walter Witke, Vaggelis Harokopos, Norman Pavelka, Dirk Koczan, Christos Argyropoulos, Maung-Maung Thwin, Steffen Möller, Waki Kazunori, Ponnampalam Gopalakrishnakone, Paola Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Hans-Jürgen Thiesen, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, George Kollias, Derry C Roopenian Abstract: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with … Continue reading
Research Article: Circulating CD4+CD161+ T Lymphocytes Are Increased in Seropositive Arthralgia Patients but Decreased in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis
Date Published: November 1, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Paulina Chalan, Bart-Jan Kroesen, Kornelis S. M. van der Geest, Minke G. Huitema, Wayel H. Abdulahad, Johan Bijzet, Elisabeth Brouwer, Annemieke M. H. Boots, Johan K. Sandberg. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079370 Abstract: Improved understanding of the immune events discriminating between seropositive arthralgia and clinical synovitis is of key … Continue reading