vitamins | definition

organic compounds required by the body to perform biochemical reactions like metabolism and bone, cell, and


Source:

Betts, J. G., Young, K. A., Wise, J. A., Johnson, E., Poe, B., Kruse, D. H., … DeSaix, P. (n.d.). Anatomy and Physiology. Houston, Texas: OpenStax. Access for free at: https://openstax.org/details/books/anatomy-and-physiology


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Keywords: definition, define, what is, meaning, thesaurus, synonyms, dictionary, encyclopedia, research, research article, research study, scientific literature, science topic

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Research Article: Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms

Date Published: August 3, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Katherine M. Phillips, Ronald L. Horst, Nicholas J. Koszewski, Ryan R. Simon, Jean-Marc A. Lobaccaro. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040702 Abstract An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study … Continue reading

Research Article: Misleading Information on the Properties of Vitamin C

Date Published: September 27, 2005 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Steve Hickey, Hilary Roberts Abstract: None Partial Text: The Cochrane review by Douglas et al. [1], which is referenced in the Best Practice article by Douglas and Hemilä [2], covers 60 years of research into vitamin C and the common cold. However, the review … Continue reading

Research Article: Narrow Scope of Vitamin C Review

Date Published: September 27, 2005 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): William Sardi Abstract: None Partial Text: Covering 60 years of research without mentioning a paper that highlights flaws in the literature, in a review, should negate any conclusion. In the Cochrane review by Douglas et al. [1], which is referenced in the Best Practice … Continue reading

Research Article: Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities

Date Published: May 11, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Thomas J. Littlejohns, Katarina Kos, William E. Henley, Iain A. Lang, Cedric Annweiler, Olivier Beauchet, Paulo H. M. Chaves, Bryan R. Kestenbaum, Lewis H. Kuller, Kenneth M. Langa, Oscar L. Lopez, David J. Llewellyn, Andrzej T Slominski. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0154896 Abstract Vitamin D deficiency has been … Continue reading

Research Article: A Serum Vitamin D Level <25nmol/L Pose High Tuberculosis Risk: A Meta-Analysis

Date Published: May 4, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Junli Zeng, Guannan Wu, Wen Yang, Xiaoling Gu, Wenjun Liang, Yanwen Yao, Yong Song, Pere-Joan Cardona. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126014 Abstract Low serum Vitamin D is considered to be associated with tuberculosis while the “dangerous” level was not clear. The aim of this study was to identify … Continue reading

Research Article: Vitamin D Deficiency in Early Pregnancy

Date Published: April 21, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Shannon K. Flood-Nichols, Deborah Tinnemore, Raywin R. Huang, Peter G. Napolitano, Danielle L. Ippolito, Ana Claudia Zenclussen. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123763 Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is a common problem in reproductive-aged women in the United States. The effect of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is unknown, but … Continue reading

Research Article: The Vitamin D Status of Prison Inmates

Date Published: March 5, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Benjamin Udoka Nwosu, Louise Maranda, Rosalie Berry, Barbara Colocino, Carlos D. Flores Sr., Kerry Folkman, Thomas Groblewski, Patricia Ruze, Andrzej T. Slominski. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090623 Abstract There is no comprehensive, systematic analysis of the vitamin D status of prisoners in the scientific literature. To investigate the … Continue reading

Research Article: Vitamin A Is a Negative Regulator of Osteoblast Mineralization

Date Published: December 10, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Thomas Lind, Anders Sundqvist, Lijuan Hu, Gunnar Pejler, Göran Andersson, Annica Jacobson, Håkan Melhus, Luc Malaval. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082388 Abstract An excessive intake of vitamin A has been associated with an increased risk of fractures in humans. In animals, a high vitamin A intake leads to … Continue reading

Research Article: Low Vitamin D in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

Date Published: May 25, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Bertrand Carlander, Anne Marie Puech-Cathala, Isabelle Jaussent, Sabine Scholz, Sophie Bayard, Valérie Cochen, Yves Dauvilliers, Kenji Hashimoto. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020433 Abstract: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is currently thought to be an autoimmune-mediated disorder in which environmental risk factors make a significant contribution to its development. It was … Continue reading

Research Article: BCG Vaccination: A Role for Vitamin D?

Date Published: January 31, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Maeve K. Lalor, Sian Floyd, Patricia Gorak-Stolinska, Rosemary E. Weir, Rose Blitz, Keith Branson, Paul E. Fine, Hazel M. Dockrell, Robert Wilkinson. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0016709 Abstract: BCG vaccination is administered in infancy in most countries with the aim of providing protection against tuberculosis. There is increasing interest … Continue reading

Research Article: Pigmentation and Vitamin D Metabolism in Caucasians: Low Vitamin D Serum Levels in Fair Skin Types in the UK

Date Published: August 3, 2009 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Daniel Glass, Marko Lens, Ramasamyiyer Swaminathan, Tim D. Spector, Veronique Bataille, Joel Gagnier. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0006477 Abstract: Vitamin D may play a protective role in many diseases. Public health messages are advocating sun avoidance to reduce skin cancer risk but the potential deleterious effects of these recommendations … Continue reading

Research Article: Impact of vitamin D and vitamin D receptor on the trophoblast survival capacity in preeclampsia

Date Published: November 8, 2018 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Martina Hutabarat, Noroyono Wibowo, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Berthold Huppertz, Colette Kanellopoulos-Langevin. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206725 Abstract Preeclampsia and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are major health problems during pregnancy affecting both mother and child. Defective placental development and failure of trophoblast differentiation during pregnancy are important aspects in the … Continue reading

Research Article: Potential of golden potatoes to improve vitamin A and vitamin E status in developing countries

Date Published: November 8, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Gianfranco Diretto, Bruno Parisi, Giovanni Giuliano, Mark L. Failla, Xiu-Qing Li. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187102 Abstract Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most widely consumed plant food by humans. Its tubers are rich in starch and vitamin C, but have low or null levels … Continue reading

Research Article: Potential of golden potatoes to improve vitamin A and vitamin E status in developing countries

Date Published: November 8, 2017 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai, Gianfranco Diretto, Bruno Parisi, Giovanni Giuliano, Mark L. Failla, Xiu-Qing Li. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187102 Abstract Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most widely consumed plant food by humans. Its tubers are rich in starch and vitamin C, but have low or null levels … Continue reading

Research Article: Serum Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Mycosis Fungoides Patients: A Case Control Study

Date Published: June 23, 2016 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Hoda Rasheed, Rehab A. Hegazy, Heba I. Gawdat, Dina A. Mehaney, Marwa M. Kamel, Marwa M. Fawzy, Mohammed M. Nooh, Hebatallah A. Darwish, Michal Zmijewski. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158014 Abstract Vitamin D has been considered a key player in various malignancies including cutaneous cancers. To date, mycosis … Continue reading

Research Article: Novel Vitamin D Receptor Mutations in Hereditary Vitamin D Resistant Rickets in Chinese

Date Published: September 30, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Lee-Moay Lim, Xuan Zhao, Mei-Chyn Chao, Jer-Ming Chang, Wei-Chiao Chang, Hung-Ying Kao, Daw-Yang Hwang, Hung-Chun Chen, Andrzej T Slominski. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138152 Abstract Hereditary 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR), a rare recessive disease, is caused by mutation in the VDR gene encoding the vitamin D receptor … Continue reading

Research Article: Novel Vitamin D Receptor Mutations in Hereditary Vitamin D Resistant Rickets in Chinese

Date Published: September 30, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Lee-Moay Lim, Xuan Zhao, Mei-Chyn Chao, Jer-Ming Chang, Wei-Chiao Chang, Hung-Ying Kao, Daw-Yang Hwang, Hung-Chun Chen, Andrzej T Slominski. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138152 Abstract Hereditary 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-resistant rickets (HVDRR), a rare recessive disease, is caused by mutation in the VDR gene encoding the vitamin D receptor … Continue reading

Research Article: Relevance of Vitamin D Receptor Target Genes for Monitoring the Vitamin D Responsiveness of Primary Human Cells

Date Published: April 13, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Maja Vukić, Antonio Neme, Sabine Seuter, Noora Saksa, Vanessa D. F. de Mello, Tarja Nurmi, Matti Uusitupa, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jyrki K. Virtanen, Carsten Carlberg, Moray Campbell. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124339 Abstract Vitamin D3 has transcriptome- and genome-wide effects and activates, via the binding of its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin … Continue reading

Research Article: Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Longitudinal Outcomes in COPD

Date Published: March 24, 2015 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Louise J. P. Persson, Marianne Aanerud, Pieter S. Hiemstra, Annika E. Michelsen, Thor Ueland, Jon A. Hardie, Pål Aukrust, Per S. Bakke, Tomas M. L. Eagan, James D. Chalmers. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0121622 Abstract Associations between Vitamin D3 [25(OH)D], vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) and chronic obstructive … Continue reading

Research Article: Serum Vitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

Date Published: July 18, 2014 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Gabriella M. Anic, Stephanie J. Weinstein, Alison M. Mondul, Satu Männistö, Demetrius Albanes, Jeffrey S. Chang. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102966 Abstract We previously reported a positive association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and colorectal cancer risk. To further elucidate this association, we examined the molar ratio of … Continue reading

Research Article: Functional Cooperation between Vitamin D Receptor and Runx2 in Vitamin D-Induced Vascular Calcification

Date Published: December 12, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Min-Su Han, Xiangguo Che, Gyoung-ho Cho, Hye-Ri Park, Kyung-Eun Lim, Na-Rae Park, Jung-Sook Jin, Youn-Kwan Jung, Jae-Hwan Jeong, In-Kyu Lee, Shigeaki Kato, Je-Yong Choi, Makoto Makishima. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083584 Abstract The transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into osteoblast-like cells has been implicated in the … Continue reading

Research Article: 4-Ethylphenyl-Cobalamin Impairs Tissue Uptake of Vitamin B12 and Causes Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Mice

Date Published: September 20, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Elena Mutti, Markus Ruetz, Henrik Birn, Bernhard Kräutler, Ebba Nexo, Joseph Alan Bauer, Victoria Lawson. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075312 Abstract Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III) alamin (EtPhCbl) is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl) which binds to transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl). In … Continue reading

Research Article: Primary Vitamin D Target Genes Allow a Categorization of Possible Benefits of Vitamin D3 Supplementation

Date Published: July 29, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Carsten Carlberg, Sabine Seuter, Vanessa D. F. de Mello, Ursula Schwab, Sari Voutilainen, Kari Pulkki, Tarja Nurmi, Jyrki Virtanen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Matti Uusitupa, Moray Campbell. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071042 Abstract Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of developing a number of diseases. Here … Continue reading

Research Article: Vitamin D Receptor Gene Expression and Function in a South African Population: Ethnicity, Vitamin D and FokI

Date Published: June 21, 2013 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Vanessa O′Neill, Furaha Florence Asani, Tamsyn Jacki Jeffery, Donovan Sean Saccone, Liza Bornman, Andrzej T. Slominski. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067663 Abstract Polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) have been associated inconsistently with various diseases, across populations of diverse origin. The T(f) allele of the functional … Continue reading

Research Article: Additive Antinociceptive Effects of a Combination of Vitamin C and Vitamin E after Peripheral Nerve Injury

Date Published: December 14, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Ruirui Lu, Wiebke Kallenborn-Gerhardt, Gerd Geisslinger, Achim Schmidtko, Joao B. Calixto. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029240 Abstract Accumulating evidence indicates that increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the development of exaggerated pain hypersensitivity during persistent pain. In the present study, we investigated the antinociceptive efficacy of … Continue reading

Research Article: Status of B-Vitamins and Homocysteine in Diabetic Retinopathy: Association with Vitamin-B12 Deficiency and Hyperhomocysteinemia

Date Published: November 1, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Alleboena Satyanarayana, Nagalla Balakrishna, Sujatha Pitla, Paduru Yadagiri Reddy, Sivaprasad Mudili, Pratti Lopamudra, Palla Suryanarayana, Kalluru Viswanath, Radha Ayyagari, Geereddy Bhanuprakash Reddy, German Malaga. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026747 Abstract: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common cause of blindness. Although many studies have indicated an association between homocysteine and … Continue reading

Research Article: Nrt1 and Tna1-Independent Export of NAD+ Precursor Vitamins Promotes NAD+ Homeostasis and Allows Engineering of Vitamin Production

Date Published: May 11, 2011 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Peter Belenky, Rebecca Stebbins, Katrina L. Bogan, Charles R. Evans, Charles Brenner, Vasu D. Appanna. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019710 Abstract: NAD+ is both a co-enzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate of sirtuins and other NAD+ consuming enzymes. NAD+ biosynthesis is required for two different regimens that … Continue reading

Research Article: A Prospective Study of Plasma Vitamin D Metabolites, Vitamin D Receptor Polymorphisms, and Prostate Cancer

Date Published: March 20, 2007 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Haojie Li, Meir J Stampfer, J. Bruce W Hollis, Lorelei A Mucci, J. Michael Gaziano, David Hunter, Edward L Giovannucci, Jing Ma, Eduardo L Franco Abstract: BackgroundVitamin D insufficiency is a common public health problem nationwide. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D), the most commonly used … Continue reading

Research Article: Vitamins A & D Inhibit the Growth of Mycobacteria in Radiometric Culture

Date Published: January 3, 2012 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Robert J. Greenstein, Liya Su, Sheldon T. Brown, Leonardo A. Sechi. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0029631 Abstract The role of vitamins in the combat of disease is usually conceptualized as acting by modulating the immune response of an infected, eukaryotic host. We hypothesized that some vitamins may directly influence … Continue reading

Research Article: Vitamin A at the interface of host–commensal–pathogen interactions

Date Published: June 6, 2019 Publisher: Public Library of Science Author(s): Namrata Iyer, Shipra Vaishnava, Kimberly A. Kline. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007750 Abstract Partial Text The gut is a stable ecosystem governed by interactions between the host immune system and trillions of gut-resident microbes. Dietary vitamin A has long been identified as the anti-infective agent that plays a … Continue reading


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