Vitamin D is an important nutrient for bone health and its deficiency considered as a disease of the past has re-emerged as an significant health concern. Exposure of the skin to sunlight is the major source of vitamin D and only a small proportion comes from food intake. Vitamin D also has a role in innate and adaptive immunity. The following is a list of facts about vitamin D based from research studies published in the year 2020.
- In the United States, drinking milk is associated with higher levels of Vitamin D in the blood.
- The vitamin D in the edible white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) can be amplified 400 times using a UV light.
- Vitamin D may reduce cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
- Vitamin D deficiency is repeatedly reported in colorectal cancer.
- Vitamin D metabolites are positively correlated with total cholesterol concentration in colorectal cancer patients.
- Vitamin D is positively correlated with serum albumin in dysphagic patients.
- Vitamin D supplementation is well documented to reduce the risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
- Most deaths due to COVID-19 viral infection are statistically attributable to vitamin D deficiency.
- In Ireland, South East Asian descent could be at a significantly increased risk of rickets, impaired bone metabolism, and osteoporosis which are correlated with vitamin D deficiency.
- Vitamin D deficiency is associated with acute and chronic illnesses, such as infectious, autoimmune, and cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and diabetes.
- Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in patient with chronic kidney disease.
- Active vitamin D treatment can improve intestinal barriers against bacteria.
- Low vitamin D levels is associated with chronic heart failure.
- Vitamin D treatment can improve the ejection fraction of the heart.
- Vitamin D supplementation does not improve liver enzymes, insulin resistance, glucose metabolism parameters, and lipid levels in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
- Vitamin D insufficiency during childhood and adolescence could cause adverse health outcomes.
- In the elderly, low vitamin D status was associated with low-frequency and speech-frequency hearing loss.
- Men with higher levels of vitamin D are more likely to possess butyrate producing bacteria that are associated with better gut microbial health.
- Prenatal vitamin D supplementation may reduce blood pressure and improves placental angiogenesis.
- Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.
- A woman with vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy will have her breast milk also deficient unless she is taking higher doses of vitamin D.
- Inadequate vitamin D in infants can lead to increased risks of poor bone mineralization and rickets.
- Evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency contributes to the seasonal increase of viral infections of the respiratory tract, from the common cold to influenza, and now possibly also COVID-19.
- Vitamin D supplementation is particularly important for individuals with dark skin tones.
- Vitamin D improves absorption of calcium however, in some animal studies, vitamin D also increases the absorption of toxic metals, such as lead and cadmium.
- In human studies, vitamin D supplementation from the second trimester of pregnancy do not influence maternal cadmium, mercury, or manganese levels at delivery.
- Combination supplement of vitamin D and calcium significantly decreased the incidence of lung cancer.
- In a rural population exposed to sunlight many hours a day throughout their lives, low vitamin D levels is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute exacerbations.
- Vitamin D can inhibit the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer cells, promoting cell apoptosis and up-regulate the sensitivity of chemotherapy drugs.
- Study suggest that active vitamin D such as alfacalcidol are more effective in the treatment of osteoporosis and prevention of fractures compared to plain vitamin D (cholecalciferol).
Keywords: vitamin d, vitamin d supplement, vitamins
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Heo, T. Y., Kim, Y. N., Park, I. B., & Lee, D. U. (2020). Amplification of Vitamin D2 in the White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by UV-B Irradiation and Jet-Milling for Its Potential Use as a Functional Ingredient. Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 9(11), 1713. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111713
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